The history of Israel in the Bible is a rich and complex narrative that spans thousands of years. It’s a story of promises, exiles, returns, and the birth of a world-changing faith.

In this article, we’ll delve into the significant events that define the biblical history of Israel, from its earliest days to its modern reestablishment as a nation.


What Happened To Israel In The Bible?

The history of Israel as described in the Bible is a complex narrative that spans many centuries and involves numerous events, figures, and theological themes. It is primarily documented in the Old Testament, which includes books like Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Judges, Kings, and the prophetic writings.

Here is a simplified overview of what happened to Israel in the Bible:


1. The Patriarchs: The biblical story of Israel begins with the patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. God makes a covenant with Abraham, promising to make his descendants a great nation. Jacob’s name is changed to Israel, and he has 12 sons, who become the ancestors of the 12 tribes of Israel.

2. Exodus and the Mosaic Covenant: The descendants of Jacob, the Israelites, become enslaved in Egypt. God chooses Moses to lead them out of Egypt in the event known as the Exodus. At Mount Sinai, God establishes a covenant with the Israelites through Moses, providing them with the Ten Commandments and other laws.


3. Conquest of Canaan: After wandering in the wilderness for 40 years, the Israelites, led by Joshua, conquered the land of Canaan, which is the Promised Land. They establish themselves in various tribal territories.

4. Period of Judges: The Israelites go through cycles of disobedience, oppression, repentance, and deliverance under various judges. This era is characterized by the lack of a centralized government.


5. United Monarchy: The Israelites demand a king, and Saul becomes the first king of Israel. He is later succeeded by David, who is known for his military successes and his role in expanding the kingdom. Solomon, David’s son, built the First Temple in Jerusalem.

6. Division of the Kingdom: After Solomon’s reign, the kingdom of Israel was divided into two: the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah. This division is due to political and religious tensions.

7. Exile and Destruction: Both the northern and southern kingdoms experience periods of idolatry and disobedience to God’s laws. The northern kingdom was eventually conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BCE, and the ten northern tribes were scattered. The southern kingdom, Judah, was later conquered by the Babylonians in 586 BCE, and the First Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed. Many inhabitants of Judah were taken into Babylonian exile.

8. Return from Exile: After a period of exile, some of the Jewish people were allowed to return to their homeland by the Babylonians. They eventually rebuilt the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

9. Roman Rule and the Time of Jesus: Israel came under Roman rule in the 1st century CE. It is during this time that Jesus of Nazareth, a central figure in Christianity, lives and teaches in the region.

10. Diaspora and Dispersal: Following the Jewish-Roman Wars in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, many Jews were dispersed across the Roman Empire and beyond. This marks the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora, which continues for centuries.

The Exodus and Covenant

The story of Israel begins with the dramatic events of the Exodus. The Israelites, descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, found themselves enslaved in Egypt. It was during this time that a man named Moses received a divine call through a burning bush (Exodus 3:2). He would lead the Israelites out of Egypt in a miraculous deliverance, parting the Red Sea and guiding them to Mount Sinai.

At Mount Sinai, the Israelites entered into a covenant with God. This pivotal moment in their history is detailed in Exodus 19 and 20, commonly known as the giving of the Ten Commandments. This covenant established the Israelites as God’s chosen people, bound by a sacred agreement.

The Wandering in the Wilderness

After the Exodus, the Israelites embarked on a 40-year journey through the wilderness. This period was marked by both challenges and divine provisions. They faced hunger, thirst, and moments of doubt, but God provided manna from heaven and water from a rock. Their journey was not only physical but also spiritual, as they learned to trust in God’s guidance.

The Conquest of Canaan

The next significant chapter in Israel’s history was the conquest of the Promised Land, Canaan, under the leadership of Joshua. The book of Joshua details the miraculous fall of Jericho and the distribution of land among the tribes. Israel had settled in the land promised to their forefathers.

The Period of Judges and Kings

The era of judges marked a transition in Israel’s governance. Judges like Deborah and Gideon delivered the Israelites from oppressors in cycles of apostasy and deliverance. However, the people began to demand a king, leading to the anointing of Saul.

The reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon form another pivotal period. David’s victory over Goliath became an iconic symbol of faith and courage. Solomon, known for his wisdom, oversaw the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem.

The Kingdom of Israel and Its Division

The United Kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon

Israel transitioned from a loose confederation of tribes to a united kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon. This marks a period of territorial expansion and relative stability.

The Division of Israel

After Solomon’s reign, the kingdom was divided into the Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Southern Kingdom of Judah. This division sets the stage for distinct histories and destinies.

The Babylonian Exile

Both Israel and Judah faced exile, with the Northern Kingdom falling to the Assyrians and the Southern Kingdom to the Babylonians. The destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem is a significant event during this period.

The Return to the Promised Land

The Babylonian exile ended with the return of Jewish exiles to Jerusalem. This return is marked by efforts to rebuild the Temple and reestablish Jewish religious and cultural practices.

The Messianic Hope

The post-exilic period also gave rise to a profound hope for a Messiah. The prophetic promises of a future anointed one, the Messiah, brought solace to the people. Scriptures like Isaiah 53 and Micah 5:2 foretold the coming of a savior who would bring redemption and peace.

Roman Rule and the Life of Jesus

During the Second Temple period, Israel was under Roman occupation. It’s in this context that Jesus of Nazareth is born and his ministry unfolds, ultimately leading to his crucifixion.

The Early Christian Church and the Spread of Christianity

Following Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection, the early Christian church emerged. It spreads rapidly, becoming a global faith and significantly impacting the course of history.

The Reestablishment of Israel and Contemporary Challenges

In the 20th century, the modern state of Israel is reestablished, a momentous event in Jewish history. However, this reestablishment is accompanied by ongoing conflicts and challenges, including the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.


The history of Israel in the Bible is a tale of resilience, faith, and the enduring significance of a promised land. From the Exodus to the Babylonian exile, the birth of Christianity, and the modern reestablishment of Israel, it’s a story that continues to shape the world and captivate those who explore its depths.

FAQs about Israel in the Bible

1. Is the modern state of Israel directly connected to biblical Israel?

The modern state of Israel has deep historical and cultural connections to biblical Israel, but its establishment was a political and historical event.

2. What role did the prophets play in Israel’s history?

Prophets in the Bible played a crucial role in conveying God’s messages, offering guidance, and warning of consequences for disobedience.

3. How did the Babylonian exile impact Jewish identity and faith?

The exile reinforced Jewish identity and led to a deeper commitment to monotheism and the preservation of their faith and traditions.

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